|Botvinnik, Mikhail Moiseyevich|
| Soviet player, electrical engineer.
International Grandmaster, 1950.
International Judge of Chess Compositions, 1956.
World Champion, 1948-1957, 1958-1960, 1961-1963.
USSR Champion, 1931, 1933, 1939, 1944, 1945, 1952.
USSR Absolute Champion, 1941.
Biography by Bill Wall
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was born in Kuokkala-Repino, Finland on August 17, 1911. He learned chess at the age of 12 in St. Petersburg (Leningrad) He won the USSR championship in 1931 and 1933, and again in 1939 and 1941.
In 1936 he tied for first place with Capablanca in Nottingham.
In 1939 he challenged Alexander Alekhine for the world chess championship, but World War II broke out and the challenge never took place.
In 1945, Botvinnik again challenged Alekhine, but Alekhine died before a match could take place.
In 1948 Botvinnik won the Hague-Moscow world championship tournament and was recognized as world champion.
In 1951 he drew hiw world championship match with Bronstein and retained his world champion title.
In 1954 he drew his match with Smyslov and retained he world champion title.
In 1957 he lost his title to Smyslov, but gained it back in a return match in 1958.
In 1960 he lost the title to Tal, but gained it back in a return match in 1961.
In 1963 he finally lost his title to Petrosian without a chance of a return match.
He died in Moscow on May 5, 1995.
Botvinnik's rating peaked to about 2730 in 1948.
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